About Technology Mission On Cotton :
Cotton is one of the principal commercial crops. In India we have the largest area in the world - around 9 million hectares. But -we are only the third largest producer of cotton in the world. The average yield has moved from a level of 88 kg. lint per ha. in 1950-51 to 265 kg. lint/ha. in 1996-97. However, it is far lower than the world average of 550 kg. lint/ ha.
Cotton plays an important role in the National economy providing large employment in the farm, marketing and processing sectors. Cotton textiles along with other textiles also contribute about 1/3,d of the Indian exports. However, India's share of global textile exports is only 3. 1%. To increase the country's share of global exports, in the WTO regime of liberalized trade, the country will have to take the challenge of competition in price and quality. Abundant supply of raw material of Quality and at reasonable price will, therefore, be crucial.
Although, there has been significant growth in production, productivity and quality of cotton during the last 50 years, our productivity is still below the average world productivity of countries like Australia, China, USA and Turkey. Even productivity of our irrigated cotton is low.
The major constraints faced by Indian cotton are
(a) Almost 65,Yo of the area under cotton is rainfed with erratic and poorly distributed rains during the cropping season.
(b) Severe attack of insect pests and diseases.
(c) Inadequate Transfer of Technology.
(d) Paucity of adequate quantity of quality seeds and
multiplicity of varieties.
(e) Inadequate marketing facilities and infrastructure, and
(f ) Obsolete ginning and pressing machinery and unscientific ginning practices.
Pre -TMC Scenario
(i) Research :
The research on cotton conducted by ICAR through CICR, Nagpur and its Regional Stations and various SAUs showed satisfactory achievements on the following major aspects.
(1) Availability of -huge collection of widely germ plasm accessions in the National Cotton Gene Bank.
(2) A well established research net work.
(3) Availability of highly trained scientific man power.
(4) All the four cultivated specifies of cotton are grown commercially
(5) Commercialization of hybrid cotton including inter and intra specific hybrids
(6) Success in R & D efforts changed the countries position in cotton map of the world from net Importer of cotton to net exporter of cotton.
(7) Availability of huge untapped potential in the form of stress resistant G. arboreum cotton for future varieties/ hybrids development programmes.
(ii) Development :
The scheme of Intensive Cotton Development Programme (ICDP) was started in 1971-72 and continued upto 1998-99 till launching of Technology Mission on Cotton in order to transfer of modern technology to the farmer's field from Research Stations. Before inception of the scheme, the cotton area was 7.61 million ha., production was 4.76 million bales with productivity of 106 kg. lint per ha.. in 1970-71 which increased to the tune of 9.29 million ha., production of 12.18 million bales with productivity of 223 kg. lint per ha. in 1998-99. The Centrally -Sponsored Intensive Cotton Development Programme was implemented in 9 major States (Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka & Tamil Nadu) and 2 minor States (Uttar Pradesh and Orissa) of the country on 75:25 per cent sharing loans between Govt. of India and State Government.
(iii) Marketing & Processing :
Generally about 3011/o of cotton is marketed by Cotton Corporation of India and other Government marketing federations and the rest 70,Yo by the private processors/trade. In the country, about 4000 regulated markets are available out of which many are involved in cotton trade. The facilities provided by regulated markets to farmers were inadequate owing to their poor infrastructure which led to poor quality as compared to many other countries due to mixing of lint from many varieties at the market place.
Most of the ginning and pressing units are old and outdated. Due to this, not only quality of cotton is deteriorating but their efficiency is also low in terms of ginning percentage.
Technology Mission on Cotton:
Encouraged by the results obtained in oilseeds by Mission Mode approach during the 1990s, it was thought appropriate to follow a similar approach for improvement of production, productivity and quality of cotton, bringing the entire gamut of research, development including technology transfer, marketing and processing of cotton under one umbrella. Government of India has thus decided to set up Technology Mission on Cotton and it was launched in February, 2000 by Hon'ble Prime Minister Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
OBJECTIVES OF THE MISSION
(a) To improve the yield and quality of cotton, particularly in respect of staple length, micronaire, strength, etc., by developing better cotton varieties and through improved seeds and Integrated Water, Nutrient and Pest Management Technologies and their transfer to farmers.
(b) To increase the income of the cotton growers by reducing the cost of cultivation apart from increasing the yield per hectare by proper transfer of technology to the growers thereby increasing the production and availability of cotton for internal consumption and exports.
(c) To improve the quality of cotton, particularly in respect of trash, contamination, etc., by improving the infrastructure in the market yards for cotton, by providing better facilities for cotton marketing and reducing foreign matters, resulting in minimum contamination in cotton.
(d) To improve cotton processing facilities by upgrading/ modernizing the existing ginning and pressing factories, resulting in cotton processing with minimum or no contamination to achieve better value added products like yarn, cloth, garments, made-ups, etc.
To fulfill the above objectives 4 Mini Missions are established under TMC as follows:
Objective Nodal Agency Cotton Research and Technology generation Indian.Council of Agriculture Research Transfer of Technology and Development Ministry of Agriculture Improvement of Marketing
Ministry of Textiles Modernisation/Upgradation of G & P Factories Ministry of Textiles
MINI MISSION I
Mini Mission-I is with the Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) as the nodal agency. The ICAR has made CICR, Nagpur as the nodal institution to run MM - I.
The main objectives of MM - I is as follows :
- Breeding varieties/hybrids resistance to biotic stresses, including development of transgenics.
- Development of short duration, synchronous flowering and Relatively compact varieties amenable to machine picking.
- Development of economical seed production technology using- male sterile lines.
- Optimization of resource use efficiency through the development of integrated soil, water, nutrition and weed management strategies for sustainable productivity and production.
- Evolution of eco-friendly technologies such Integrated Pesi Management, use of bio-fertilizers and organics, etc.
- Crop growth and yield modelling.
- Development of suitable farm machinery for cultivation of cotton.
- Fibre Quality improvement.
In view of the above objectives, 13 ICAR institutes and 13 SAUs as well as 2 National Institutes i.e. BARC, Mumbai and NRSA, Hyderabad have been identified to the programme of MM-1. The various programmes undertaken under MM-I are as follows:
Programmes MMA Genetic Improvement of Cotton MMB Cotton Seed Technology MMC Resource Management for quality cotton production MMD Modemisation of cotton cultivation MME Biotic stress management MMF Post harvest technology of cotton MMG Impact assessment of cotton production Technologies MMH Informatics, documentation and monitoring
Mini Mission II is with the Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture and Cooperation as the Nodal Agency, has the following objectives:
- To increase production and productivity of cotton.
- To transfer production technology to farmers through field demonstrations and farmers/extension workers training.
- To bring more area under irrigation and efficient use of water by popularising drip and sprinkler irrigation.
- To minimize the losses to cotton crop by pests through popularising the use of delinted seed and IPM techniques.
- To promote the use of quality inputs in cotton through standard package of practices.
- To achieve the said goal under MM-II of TMC, the followings strategies are being implemented.
Transfer of Improved Technologies through
- Frontline, field and IPM demonstrations.
- Training of Trainers, extension personnel and farmers through States and Field level trainings.
- Visit of farmers outside the state as well as inside the state.
Increasing supply of quality delinted seeds through
- Production of Breeder seed in required quantity by ICAR.
- Production of Foundation and Certified seeds by States Seeds Corporations and State Agriculture Universities.
- Distribution of certified seeds of hybrid/varieties.
- Establishing seed delinting plants.
Systemising efforts in IPM on various cotton pests by
- Promoting the use of relatively pest tolerant varieties as also cultural, biotic and chemical means.
- Demonstration and extensive training of farmers on IPM.
- Surveillance, production and supply of bio-agents, pheromone traps etc.
The above strategy is being implemented through ICDP for which implementation cost is shared on 75:25 basis between Government of India and State Governments for most of the components. The component-wise details of ICDP under MM-II of TMC are given hereunder :
(a) Maintenance of Nucleus & Breeder seed: An assistance will be provided to identified ICAR/SAUs institutions for maintaining genetic purity of both types of seeds on 100% funding basis.
(b) Production of breeder seeds:- To be produced by ICAR institutions and State Agricultural Universities. For this looyo assistance will be provided on 75:25,Yo sharing basis between GOI and State Governments. The indent for requirement of Breeder seed will be@ placed by State Governments to Seeds Division of Ministry of Agriculture.
(c) Production of foundation/certified seeds:- The assistance for the production of foundation/certified seeds is
being provided on 75:25 % sharing basis @ Rs.500/Qtl. B. DEMONSTRATIONS
(1) Frontline Demonstrations (FLD) : For the FLDs on production/protection Technology and on farm implements, assistance @ looo/o will be provided by GOI to popularise the production/protection technology and use of farm implements.
- Production/protection technology. Under this component assistance will be provided to ICAR/ SAUs institutions besides KVKs limited to Rs.2000/- per demonstration of 0.4 ha.
- Farm implements: Assistance for conductance of such type of FLDs will be available to ICAR/ SAUs/State Govts./KVKs/Co-operatives to promote use of farm- implements and mechanising the cultivation of cotton for reducing the cost of production.
(2) Field Demonstration: These will be organised in the farmers fields to propogate various production technologies. Assistance will be provided @ Rs.1000/ - per demonstration of 0.4 ha. to meet expenditure on the use of critical inputs.
C. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT
The main objective of this broad component is to minimize the insect pest and diseases. The details of sub-components are as follows:
- Establishment of bio-agent labs : An assistance of actual cost with limit of Rs. 100 lakh per lab and for a smaller lab on pro-rata basis to State Governments on 75:25 sharing basis for establishment of bio-agent labs will be provided.
The 10011/o assistance will also be provided to ICAR/ SAUs/ Cooperatives to establish new bio-control labs/ augmentation of existing bio-agent production. -
The back ended subsidy on 50:50 sharing basis to private production units will be provided for promoting the production of bio-agents. The subsidy will be routed through NABARD.
- IPM Demonstration-cum-training: An area of 50 ha. or the whole village will be covered under each demonstration to show the effect of the IPM approach in the control of diseases and pests. An assistance @ Rs.85,000/- per demonstration will be provided under the scheme.
- Distribution of Pheromone traps: An assistance is available on all kinds of pheromone traps for monitoring as well as boll-worms management. The rate of assistance is @ 5OVo of the cost limited to Rs.500/ - per ha.
- Supply of bio-agents: Subsidy is available @ 50'Yo of the cost limited to Rs. 300/- per ha.
- Surveillance of insect pests and diseases: Subsidy is available per scout.Rs.500/- per month for 5 months only during the cotton crop season.
- Supply manually operated sprayers: Subsidy is available to the farmers @ 500/o of the cost limited to Rs; 700/- per unit.
- Supply of power operated sprayers : Subsidy is available to the farmers @ 500/o of the cost limited to Rs.1,500/- per units.
- Supply of tractor mounted sprayers : An assistance @ 250/o of the cost limited to Rs.4,000/- is available.
- Project on Insecticide Resistant Management : This component has been approved by the empowered committee to implement in the areas where resistance in insects to pesticides has increased due to unjudicious use of pesticides. The whole expenditure on this component will be borne by GOI and implemented by CICR, Nagpur under the supervision of ICAR.
Under the Scheme, State level training programmes will be organised for trainers on all aspect of cotton production technologies. Along with the State level training, farmers training programmes will be organised to train farmers in all the cotton growing State. These trainings will be organised through the involvement of KVKS, State Agricultural Departments.
- Training of Extension Workers: Assistance @ Rs.15,000/- per training of 30 Extension Workers for 3 days on 75 : 25 sharing basis.
- Training of Farmers : An assistance @ Rs.10,000/- per camp of 50 farmers for 2 days.
- Training by CIRCOT : The cost of training imparted by CIRCOT to ginners/processors is borne by G.O.1 on looyo funding basis.
E. WATER SAVING DEVICES
Subsidy under this component is being provided to utilise the available water for irrigating more area.
- Sprinkler Sets: Assistance will be provided @ 500/o of the cost to SC/ST/Small / Marginal and women farmers limited to Rs. 1 5000/- per ha. & 33c'/o of the cost for the- other farmers limited to Rs.10000/- per ha. The assistance is available only for a maximum area of 2 ha per beneficiary family.
- Drip Irrigation System : The assistance is available for this device @ 50(1/o of the total cost to SC/ST/Srnall/Marginal/Women Farmers and @ 33'Yo of the total cost for other farmers with a limit of Rs.25000/- per ha. In the case of marginal farmers assistance will be provide at the pro rata basis for 0.4 ha. keeping in view of their size of land holding.
E CONTINGENCIES TO STATE GOVERNMENTS
Under this component fund is provided on 75:25 sharing basis to meet expenses on Staff, Seminar, Meeting, Workshops etc.
G. EVALUATION STUDY
Assistance is provided to independent agency who carry out evaluation of impact of the scheme. Expenditure on this account is born in full by GOI.
At present the scheme is under implementation in 9 major (Punjab, I-laryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka & Tamil Nadu) and 2 minor (Uttar Pradesh and Orissa) and 2 non traditional States (West Bengal and Tripura).
The cotton farmers of these states are provided subsidy on the various components stated above and special emphasis is given for SC/ST/Small/Marginal and Women farmers.
MINI MISSION - III
The Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India is the nodal agency for Mini Mission - 111. 700/o of cotton produced in the country is marketed by private trade. The remaining 300/o is marketed by the Cotton Corporation of India Ltd. (CCI), a Public Sector Undertaking under the Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India, Maharashtra State Cotton Growers' Cooperative Marketing Federation (for Maharashtra only) and to some extent by other State Cooperative Cotton Growers'Federation Ltd.
The aim of implementation of this mission is to develop the market infrastructure to eliminate contamination during the handling of cotton in market yards. For this purpose the Govt. of India is providing assistance on activating non- functional yards, improvement in yards and setting up of new yards under this mission. 600/o of the cost of development is borne by GOI and balance by the Agriculture Produce Marketing Committee (APMC)/State Government concerned. Govt. of India's assistance is limited to Rs. 1.5 crores for setting up of new yards and Rs.2.5 crores for activation of dormant market yards.
MINI MISSION - IV
The Ministry of Textile, Govt. of India is the nodal agency for Mini Mission - IV
At present there are 4000 ginning and pressing factories in the country including about 400 composite units, comprising of both roller ginning and saw ginning. Saw ginning is confined to the irrigated Northern Zone, producing short and medium staple cotton. Roller ginning is popular in all other cotton growing areas. Under this Mission the subsidy is being provided on modernization of ginning and pressing factories @ 50 units per year. Preference is given to the existing composite units. 250/o of the cost of modernization/ upgradation of ginning factory limited to Rs.20.00 lakh is borne by Government of India and the rest by the entrepreneur.
With a view to ensuring supply of quality raw material by the Textile Ministr to the Textile mills on sustainable basis efforts have been made to create a general awareness against contamination and a better work culture. Some of the steps taken are as under:
- General awareness meetings are organized in cotton growing States wherein farmers, market yard officials, G&P factory owners, traders, Agricultural Scientists, Agriculture Extension Officers are brought on one platform to discuss ways and means to improve the quality of cotton and reduce contamination. The Second tier awareness meetings are also organized by the APMCs during cotton arrivals in the markets when large number of cotton growers congregate in the markets. The State Governments/APMCs have been requested to take up the awareness programmes in all market yards, whether or not covered under MM-111, on a sustainable basis.
- 'Best Management Practices (BMP)' relating to do's and don@t's at farm level, market yard level and G&P factories in local languages are distributed at these Awareness Meetings and sent to all G&P factories and market yards to improve the quality of cotton and reduce contamination.
- G&P factories and market yards have been requested to display the BMP prominently at different places in the market yards and G&P factories.
- All market yards have been requested to open shops in the market yards for supply of good quality inputs like seeds, fertilizers and pesticides.
The Agriculture Commissioner, Department of Agriculture & Co-operation, Ministry of Agriculture, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi is the Director of Technology Mission on Cotton who reviews the progress of implementation of all Mini Missions from time to time as and when needed.
An empowered committee under the Chairmanship of Cabinet Secretary, Rashtrapati Bhavan, Parliament House, Central Secretariat, New Delhi has been constituted for overseeing the inclusion and deletion of components/ interventions in all the four Mini Missions under TMC. The other members on this committee are Secretary (A&C), Secretary (Expenditure), Secretary (Textile), Secretary (DARE) & D.G. (ICAR) and Adviser (Agri.), Planning Commission and Agriculture Commissioner, Deptt. of Agri. & Coopn., MOA,GOI is the Member Secretary for dealing with the related matters. Apart from this, Chairman of this Committee may also call experts and representatives of industry as and when required to discuss issues concerning cotton industry to arrive at decisions in the meeting of the committee.